Post-menopausal HRT and Breast Cancer risk

In GP-bulletin by Karina Cox

Download PDF version of this bulletin In August of this year (2019), the Lancet published a large meta-analysis looking at the type and timing of post-menopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and breast cancer risk. The authors were a collaborative group based in the Cancer Epidemiology Unit at the University of Oxford. Important findings from this study are listed below and …

Update on Breast Fibroadenoma

In GP-bulletin by Karina Cox

Download PDF Version Fibroadenomas are benign and composed of both stromal and epithelial elements. They are more common in women of childbearing age. As many as 10% of women have fibroadenomas and of them, 10-15% may have multiple fibroadenomas (in either breast). The natural history of fibroadenomas means that approximately 50% will spontaneously disappear, 25% will stay the same and …

Update on Breast Implants

In GP-bulletin by Karina Cox

Download PDF Version Breast implants are made of a silicone elastomer shell that contains a filler material. Only 2 types of filler material are currently in use in the UK namely a highly cohesive silicone gel or saline and silicone filled implants are by far the most commonly used. The surface of the shell can be smooth or textured. Texturing …

Update on Breast Cancer and Genetic Risk

In GP-bulletin by Karina Cox

Download PDF Version High-risk genes The vast majority of breast cancer in the UK is sporadic and the inheritance of high-risk BRCA1/2 gene mutations only account for 1.6% of all breast cancer cases. However, the results of the POSH study showed that more than 10% of young women (under 40) with breast cancer have BRCA 1/2 gene mutations regardless of …

Update on Nipple Discharge

In GP-bulletin by Karina Cox

Download PDF Version 90% of nipple discharge is benign. Many women will have physiological over-production of breast secretions. Coloured discharge, which is white, green or yellow and originates from multiple ducts, is usually benign. Although many women are referred with single duct discharge, gentle breast massage will often demonstrate that discharge comes from multiple ducts or is bilateral. Most women …

Update on Breast Pain

In GP-bulletin by Karina Cox

Download PDF Version Breast pain is very common and, in the absence of a palpable abnormality, is rarely associated with any worrying pathology. Breast pain can be cyclical or non-cyclical. The most common cause of breast pain seen in the breast clinic is referred pain from the chest wall. Most episodes of breast pain are self-limiting and will settle with …

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Exercise may increase breast cancer survival

In Breast Cancer Risks, Lifestyle, Research, Spotlight by Karina Cox

Exercise may increase breast cancer survival and improve symptoms of fatigue after breast cancer treatment. The Australian Exercise for Health trials presented their work at the 2017 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium and showed that an individually – prescribed and monitored exercise programme started during breast cancer treatment and continued for 8 months improved overall survival in women less than …

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Breast cancer risk & lifestyle factors

In Breast Cancer Risks, Research, Trials by Karina Cox

The World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research established the continuous update programme to monitor all relevant studies and trials looking at the links between cancer risk and lifestyle factors. At the 2017 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium they presented the updated findings for breast cancer. For pre-menopausal women, it is estimated that vigorous exercise will reduce …

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Acupuncture helps joint pain

In Research, Spotlight, Treatments by Karina Cox

Acupuncture helps joint pain in women taking hormone therapy after breast cancer At the recent San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium in the US, Dr Dawn Hershman from Columbia University, New York presented the interesting results of her study. She and her team looked at the effectiveness of acupuncture as a treatment for the often severe joint pains that can accompany …

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Vitamin D and Breast Cancer Risk

In Breast Cancer Risks, Spotlight by Karina Cox

A group from Spain (MCC – Spain) have found a possible link between breast cancer risk and vitamin D (25-OH-vitamin D) levels in the blood. Vitamin D has been shown to protect against colorectal cancer but the connection between breast cancer risk and vitamin D levels is less clear. The Spanish group presented their results at the recent San Antonio …