Post-menopausal HRT and Breast Cancer risk

In GP-bulletin by Karina Cox

Download PDF version of this bulletin In August of this year (2019), the Lancet published a large meta-analysis looking at the type and timing of post-menopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and breast cancer risk. The authors were a collaborative group based in the Cancer Epidemiology Unit at the University of Oxford. Important findings from this study are listed below and …

Update on Breast Fibroadenoma

In GP-bulletin by Karina CoxLeave a Comment

Download PDF Version Fibroadenomas are benign and composed of both stromal and epithelial elements. They are more common in women of childbearing age. As many as 10% of women have fibroadenomas and of them, 10-15% may have multiple fibroadenomas (in either breast). The natural history of fibroadenomas means that approximately 50% will spontaneously disappear, 25% will stay the same and …

Update on Breast Implants

In GP-bulletin by Karina Cox

Download PDF Version Breast implants are made of a silicone elastomer shell that contains a filler material. Only 2 types of filler material are currently in use in the UK namely a highly cohesive silicone gel or saline and silicone filled implants are by far the most commonly used. The surface of the shell can be smooth or textured. Texturing …

Update on Breast Cancer and Genetic Risk

In GP-bulletin by Karina Cox

Download PDF Version High-risk genes The vast majority of breast cancer in the UK is sporadic and the inheritance of high-risk BRCA1/2 gene mutations only account for 1.6% of all breast cancer cases. However, the results of the POSH study showed that more than 10% of young women (under 40) with breast cancer have BRCA 1/2 gene mutations regardless of …

Update on Nipple Discharge

In GP-bulletin by Karina CoxLeave a Comment

Download PDF Version 90% of nipple discharge is benign. Many women will have physiological over-production of breast secretions. Coloured discharge, which is white, green or yellow and originates from multiple ducts, is usually benign. Although many women are referred with single duct discharge, gentle breast massage will often demonstrate that discharge comes from multiple ducts or is bilateral. Most women …

Update on Breast Pain

In GP-bulletin by Karina Cox

Download PDF Version Breast pain is very common and, in the absence of a palpable abnormality, is rarely associated with any worrying pathology. Breast pain can be cyclical or non-cyclical. The most common cause of breast pain seen in the breast clinic is referred pain from the chest wall. Most episodes of breast pain are self-limiting and will settle with …